Oracle Linux/Common Tools

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Common Tools

Contents

Listening Ports

netstat

~$ netstat -lnp
Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State       PID/Program name
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:17003         0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:40333         0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -
udp    42240      0 127.0.0.1:8125          0.0.0.0:*                           -
udp    32256      0 169.254.0.2:53          0.0.0.0:*                           -

process activity

top

~$ top

LoadAvg Load average over 1, 5, and 15 minutes. divide by number of cores to determine load.

ps

ps -AlH

This shows all the processes running, in long format, with the extra full format output

Network Throughput

iperf

requires a server/client setup that communicates over port 5001. generally server/client placement is dependent on network accessibility, ie. server would be placed outside of the network, client within. You may need to open 5001 on both sides however, in case established/related is not implicitly accepted from the client side > out.

Server side

~$ sudo yum install -y iperf
sudo iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 5001 -j ACCEPT -m comment --comment "iperf - 5001"
~$ iperf -s

Example:

$ iperf -s
------------------------------------------------------------
Server listening on TCP port 5001
TCP window size: 85.3 KByte (default)
------------------------------------------------------------
[  4] local 10.0.0.1 port 5001 connected with 10.0.0.2 port 47552
[ ID] Interval       Transfer     Bandwidth
[  4]  0.0-10.0 sec  76.6 MBytes  64.1 Mbits/sec
[  5] local 10.0.0.1 port 5001 connected with 10.0.0.2 port 39914
[  5]  0.0-10.0 sec  84.5 MBytes  70.6 Mbits/sec

Client side

~$ iperf -c target.ip -p port.number
Example
$ iperf -c 10.0.0.1 -p 5001
------------------------------------------------------------
Client connecting to 10.0.0.1, TCP port 5001
TCP window size:  466 KByte (default)
------------------------------------------------------------
[  3] local 10.0.0.1 port 39914 connected with 10.0.0.2 port 5001
[ ID] Interval       Transfer     Bandwidth
[  3]  0.0-10.0 sec  84.5 MBytes  70.8 Mbits/sec

Disk

lsblk

Shows a list of block devices. Useful in showing mount points, size, name, etc.

~$ lsblk --all
NAME                        MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
loop0                         7:0    0        0 loop
loop1                         7:1    0        0 loop
loop2                         7:2    0        0 loop
loop3                         7:3    0        0 loop
loop4                         7:4    0        0 loop
loop5                         7:5    0        0 loop
loop6                         7:6    0        0 loop
loop7                         7:7    0        0 loop
sr0                          11:0    1 1024M  0 rom
sda                           8:0    0    8G  0 disk
├─sda1                        8:1    0  500M  0 part /boot
└─sda2                        8:2    0  7.5G  0 part
  ├─VolGroup-lv_root (dm-0) 253:0    0  6.7G  0 lvm  /
  └─VolGroup-lv_swap (dm-1) 253:1    0  816M  0 lvm  [SWAP]

fdisk

Tool for showing partitions and disks, as well as other things

~$ sudo fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 8589 MB, 8589934592 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 1044 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x000091fd

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          64      512000   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              64        1045     7875584   8e  Linux LVM

Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root: 7205 MB, 7205814272 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 876 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000


Disk /dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_swap: 855 MB, 855638016 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 104 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

df

shows the amount of disk space on the file system and the file system type. Can also show inodes.

~$ df -Th
Filesystem              Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/centos-root xfs       6.2G  1.5G  4.8G  24% /
devtmpfs                devtmpfs  485M     0  485M   0% /dev
tmpfs                   tmpfs     496M     0  496M   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                   tmpfs     496M  6.8M  490M   2% /run
tmpfs                   tmpfs     496M     0  496M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1               xfs      1014M  159M  856M  16% /boot
tmpfs                   tmpfs     100M     0  100M   0% /run/user/1000

du

shows the amount of space used from a specific directory and recursively includes its children.

~$ du -h /home/user/temp
4.0K	/home/user/temp

local mounts and file systems

~$ sudo cat /proc/mounts
rootfs / rootfs rw 0 0
proc /proc proc rw,relatime 0 0
sysfs /sys sysfs rw,seclabel,relatime 0 0
devtmpfs /dev devtmpfs rw,seclabel,relatime,size=499208k,nr_inodes=124802,mode=755 0 0
devpts /dev/pts devpts rw,seclabel,relatime,gid=5,mode=620,ptmxmode=000 0 0
tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs rw,seclabel,relatime 0 0
/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root / ext4 rw,seclabel,relatime,barrier=1,data=ordered 0 0
none /selinux selinuxfs rw,relatime 0 0
devtmpfs /dev devtmpfs rw,seclabel,relatime,size=499208k,nr_inodes=124802,mode=755 0 0
/proc/bus/usb /proc/bus/usb usbfs rw,relatime 0 0
/dev/sda1 /boot ext4 rw,seclabel,relatime,barrier=1,data=ordered 0 0
none /proc/sys/fs/binfmt_misc binfmt_misc rw,relatime 0 0

hardware/driver

dmesg

Used to gather information about hardware and drivers on a system but can also be used to troubleshoot and show verbose logs pertaining to such.

$ dmesg | less
[    0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuset
[    0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpu
[    0.000000] Initializing cgroup subsys cpuacct
[    0.000000] Linux version 3.11.0-13-generic ([email protected]) (gcc version 4.8.1 (Ubuntu/Linaro 4.8.1-10ubuntu8) ) #20-Ubuntu SMP Wed Oct 23 17:26:33 UTC 2013 
(Ubuntu 3.11.0-13.20-generic 3.11.6)
[    0.000000] KERNEL supported cpus:
[    0.000000]   Intel GenuineIntel
[    0.000000]   AMD AuthenticAMD
[    0.000000]   NSC Geode by NSC
[    0.000000]   Cyrix CyrixInstead
[    0.000000]   Centaur CentaurHauls
[    0.000000]   Transmeta GenuineTMx86
[    0.000000]   Transmeta TransmetaCPU
[    0.000000]   UMC UMC UMC UMC
[    0.000000] e820: BIOS-provided physical RAM map:
[    0.000000] BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000000000000-0x000000000009fbff] usable
[    0.000000] BIOS-e820: [mem 0x00000000000f0000-0x00000000000fffff] reserved
[    0.000000] BIOS-e820: [mem 0x0000000000100000-0x000000007dc08bff] usable

Find specific device

~$ dmesg | grep sda

[    1.280971] sd 2:0:0:0: [sda] 488281250 512-byte logical blocks: (250 GB/232 GiB)
[    1.281014] sd 2:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off
[    1.281016] sd 2:0:0:0: [sda] Mode Sense: 00 3a 00 00
[    1.281039] sd 2:0:0:0: [sda] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA
[    1.359585]  sda: sda1 sda2 < sda5 sda6 sda7 sda8 >
[    1.360052] sd 2:0:0:0: [sda] Attached SCSI disk

Downloading

wget

quiet

-q | --quiet
Turn off Wget's output

verbose

-v | --verbose
Turn on verbose output

input file

-i | --input-file=file
Reads URLs from a local or external file.

Tries

-t | --tries=number
number of times to retry.

Output

-O | --output-document=file
all documents will be concatenated together and written to the file

Progress Indicator

--progress=type
Show a process indicator with varying types, such as dot and bar
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