Windows/Powershell/Hyper V

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Contents

Install

To Install the Hyper-V Powershell Module (Done on Windows 10 client)

PS> Get-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName *hyper-v* | select DisplayName, FeatureName

DisplayName                           FeatureName                            
-----------                           -----------                            
Hyper-V                               Microsoft-Hyper-V-All                  
Hyper-V Platform                      Microsoft-Hyper-V                      
Hyper-V Management Tools              Microsoft-Hyper-V-Tools-All            
Hyper-V Module for Windows PowerShell Microsoft-Hyper-V-Management-PowerShell
Hyper-V Hypervisor                    Microsoft-Hyper-V-Hypervisor           
Hyper-V Services                      Microsoft-Hyper-V-Services             
Hyper-V GUI Management Tools          Microsoft-Hyper-V-Management-Clients   



PS> Enable-WindowsOptionalFeature -Online -FeatureName Microsoft-Hyper-V-Management-PowerShell


Path          : 
Online        : True
RestartNeeded : False


Scripts

Clone VM

Quick script to clone a VM based on an existing "master".
issues with this method will be duplication of VM values, such as hostname, sid, etc. If using an Evaluation copy of windows, when the master expires, the clones wont work anymore, so rebuilding the master every 6 months is needed.
Also, this uses VHD differencing, so the master cannot be powered on or it will break the rest of the vms created off it.

param(
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][int64]$Epoch = [long](Get-Date -Date ((Get-Date).ToUniversalTime()) -UFormat %s),
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][ValidateSet('Win2k16-Master','Win2k12r2-Master','Win2k16GVEUpgrade-Master','Win2k12r2GVEUpgrade-Master','Linux-Master')][string]$BaseImage = "Linux-Master",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$ComputerName = "win-45mo0eqvg4g",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$Name = -join($BaseImage, "-", $Epoch),
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$Path = "C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\Windows\Hyper-V\",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$NewVHDPath = "C:\Users\Public\Documents\Hyper-V\Virtual Hard Disks\$Name.vhdx",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$NewVHDSizeBytes = 20GB,
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][int]$Generation = 1,
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$MemoryStartupBytes = 1GB,
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$SwitchName = "External_Virtual_Switch_01",  
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][int]$ProcessorCount = 1,
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][int64]$MemoryMinimumBytes = 1073741824,
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][int64]$MemoryMaximumBytes = 2147483648,
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$AutomaticStartAction = "Nothing",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][int]$AutomaticStartDelay = 1,
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$AutomaticStopAction = "Shutdown",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$Date = (Get-Date),
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$Notes = "Created $Date",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$LogDir = "C:\logs"
)

#Creates a new Virtual Machine
function CreateVM {
    New-VM -ComputerName $ComputerName `
        -Name $Name `
        -Path $Path `
        -VHDPath $newVHDPath `
        -Generation $Generation `
        -MemoryStartupBytes $MemoryStartupBytes `
        -SwitchName $SwitchName
}

#Configures the new Virtual Machine
function ConfigureVM {
    Set-VM -ComputerName $ComputerName `
        -Name $Name `
        -ProcessorCount $ProcessorCount `
        -DynamicMemory `
        -MemoryMinimumBytes $MemoryMinimumBytes `
        -MemoryMaximumBytes $MemoryMaximumBytes `
        -AutomaticStartAction $AutomaticStartAction `
        -AutomaticStartDelay $AutomaticStartDelay `
        -AutomaticStopAction $AutomaticStopAction `
        -Notes $Notes
}

#Deletes the new Virtual Machine (only used when Configuration fails)
function DeleteVM {
    $disk = Get-VMHardDiskDrive -ComputerName $ComputerName -VMName $Name | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Path
    Remove-Item $disk
    Remove-VM -ComputerName $ComputerName -Name $Name -Force
}

#Verify that the desired Computer Name does not already exist
function ValidateName {
    Get-VM -ComputerName $ComputerName | ForEach-Object {
        if ($_.VMName -eq $Name) {
            $script:LogOut = "$Date - Failed to create the VM with the name: $Name. A VM already exists with that name."
            exit
        }
        else {
            return
        }
    } 
}

#Clone the $BaseImage VHD using differencing
function CloneVHD {
    #$srcVHD = -join((Split-Path -Path $NewVHDPath), "\", $BaseImage, ".vhdx")
    $srcVHD = Get-VMHardDiskDrive -ComputerName $ComputerName -VMName $BaseImage | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Path
    $newVHD = -join((Split-Path -Path $NewVHDPath), "\", $BaseImage, "-", $Epoch, ".vhdx")
    New-VHD -Differencing -Path $newVHD -ParentPath $srcVHD
}

#Clear the Variables used
function ClearVariables {
    #$Variables = Get-Variable | Where-Object {($_.Attributes -like "System.Management.Automation.ArgumentTypeConverterAttribute") -and ($_.Name -notin "ConfirmPreference","DebugPreference","ErrorActionPreference","InformationPreference","OutputEncoding","ProgressPreference","PSDefaultParameterValues","VerbosePreference","WarningPreference")} | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Name
    $Variables = ("Epoch", "BaseImage", "ComputerName", "Name", "Path", "NewVHDPath", "NewVHDSizeBytes" , "Generation", "MemoryStartupBytes", "SwitchName", "ProcessorCount", "MemoryMinimumBytes", "MemoryMaximumBytes", "AutomaticStartAction", "AutomaticStartDelay", "AutomaticStopAction", "Date", "Notes")
    foreach ($Variable in $Variables) {
        Get-Variable $Variable | Clear-Variable -Force -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
    }
}

#Verify Log directory exists and create if not
function VerifyLogDir {
    if( -Not (Test-Path -Path $LogDir ) ) {
        New-Item -ItemType directory -Path $LogDir -ErrorAction Stop
    }
}

#Set-PSDebug -Off
#Set-PSDebug -Trace 2

try {
    ValidateName -ErrorAction Stop
    CloneVHD -ErrorAction stop
    CreateVM -ErrorAction Stop
    $script:LogOut = "$Date - Created VM $Name"
}
catch {
    $ErrorMessage = $_.Exception.Message
    $script:LogOut = "$Date - Failed to create the VM $Name. The error message was $ErrorMessage"
    Break
}
finally {
    echo $script:LogOut | Out-File $LogDir\vm-script.log -Append
}

try {
    ConfigureVM -ErrorAction Stop
    Start-VM -ComputerName $ComputerName -Name $Name -ErrorAction Stop
    $script:LogOut = "$Date - Configured VM $Name"
}
catch {
    $ErrorMessage = $_.Exception.Message
    $script:LogOut = "$Date - Failed to configure the VM $Name. The error message was $ErrorMessage ---- Deleting VM $Name due to configuration failure."
    DeleteVM
    Break
}
finally {
    echo $script:LogOut | Out-File $LogDir\vm-script.log -Append
}

#Get-Variable | ForEach-Object { $_.Name }
ClearVariables

scvmm create vm from template

WIP, script to create virtual machines on a SCVMM host using templates.

param(
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][int64]$Epoch = [long](Get-Date -Date ((Get-Date).ToUniversalTime()) -UFormat %s),
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][ValidateSet('RNC-LAB-ENG Template','RNC-LAB-ENGINEERING TEMPLATE','RNCENG-LAB-CENTOS7','RNCENG-LAB-WIN2K16')][string]$TemplateName = "RNCENG-LAB-WIN2K16",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$VMName = -join($TemplateName, "-", $Epoch),
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$Description = "GVE Test VM $BaseImage created on $( Get-Date )",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][ValidateSet('AlwaysAutoTurnOnVM','NeverAutoTurnOnVM','TurnOnVMIfRunningWhenVSStopped')][string]$StartAction = "AlwaysAutoTurnOnVM",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][ValidateSet('SaveVM','ShutdownGuestOS','TurnOffVM')][string]$StopAction = "TurnOffVM",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$SCVMMServer = "rnc-lab-scvmm1.r00tedvw.com",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$sccloud = "RNC-LAB-ENG",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$LogDir = "C:\logs",
    [parameter(ParameterSetName="createvm")][string]$UserRoleName = "ENG Users"
)

#Verify Connectivity to SCVMM Server
function VerifySCVMMServerConnectivity {
    $scvmmport = 8100
    do {
    $v ++
    if ($(Test-Connection -ComputerName $SCVMMserver -Count 1)) {
        if($(Get-SCVMMServer -ComputerName $SCVMMserver -TCPPort $scvmmport | Where-Object { ($_.IsConnected -match "True") } )){
            $v=6
            $script:LogOut += "$(Get-Date) - Connected to scvmm server: $SCVMMserver"
        } else {
            Get-SCVMMServer -ComputerName $SCVMMserver -TCPPort $scvmmport
        }
    } else {
        $script:LogOut += "$(Get-Date) - Unable to connect to scvmm server: $SCVMMserver"
    }
}
Until ($v -gt 4)
}

#Verify Log directory exists and create if not
function VerifyVMMmodule {
    if( -Not (Get-Module -ListAvailable -Name virtualmachinemanager) ) {
        Import-Module virtualmachinemanager
    }
}

#Creates a new Virtual Machine from a Template
function CreateVM {
    $template = (Get-SCVMTemplate -VMMServer $SCVMMServer | Where-Object {$_.Name -eq $TemplateName})
    $Cloud = (Get-sccloud | Where-Object {$_.Name -eq $sccloud})
    $virtualmachineconfiguration = (New-SCVMConfiguration -Cloud $Cloud -VMTemplate $Template -Name $VMName)
    if ($VMName -like "*WIN2K16*") {
            $OperatingSystem = "Windows Server 2016 Standard"
        } elseif ($VMName -like "*WIN2K12*") {
            $OperatingSystem = "Windows Server 2012 Standard"
        } elseif ($VMName -like "*centos*") {
            $OperatingSystem = "CentOS Linux 7 (64 bit)"
        } else {
            $OperatingSystem = "Other (64 bit)"
        }
    
    New-SCVirtualMachine -Name $VMName `
        -VMConfiguration $VirtualMachineConfiguration `
        -Cloud $Cloud `
        -Description $Description `
        -StartAction $StartAction `
        -StopAction $StopAction `
        -OperatingSystem $OperatingSystem `
        -ReturnImmediately `
        -RunAsynchronously `
        -JobVariable "CreateVMJob" `
        -ErrorAction Stop
}

#Verify that the desired Computer Name does not already exist
function ValidateName {
    Get-SCVirtualMachine -VMMServer $SCVMMServer -ErrorAction Stop | ForEach-Object {
        if ($_.VMName -eq $VMName) {
            $script:LogOut += "$(Get-Date) - Failed to create the VM with the name: $VMName. A VM already exists with that name."
            exit
        }
        else {
            return
        }
    } 
}

#Verify Log directory exists and create if not
function VerifyLogDir {
    if( -Not (Test-Path -Path $LogDir ) ) {
        New-Item -ItemType directory -Path $LogDir -ErrorAction Stop
    }
}

#Grant Role to vm
function GrantRole {
    Grant-SCResource -VMMServer $SCVMMServer -UserRoleName $UserRoleName -Resource $(Get-SCVirtualMachine -VMMServer $SCVMMServer -Name $VMName) -ErrorAction Stop
}

#Delete VM
function DeleteVM {
    Remove-SCVirtualMachine -VM $( Get-SCVirtualMachine -VMMServer $SCVMMServer -Name $VMName ) -ErrorAction Stop
}

#Set-PSDebug -Off
#Set-PSDebug -Trace 2

#Validate the Module, Name, and Log Directory, then Create the VM
try {
    $script:LogOut = @()
    VerifyVMMmodule
    VerifySCVMMServerConnectivity
    ValidateName
    VerifyLogDir
    CreateVM | Out-Null
    $script:LogOut += "$(Get-Date) - Created VM $VMName"
}
catch {
    $ErrorMessage = $_.Exception.Message
    $script:LogOut += "$(Get-Date) - Failed to create the VM $VMName. The error message was $ErrorMessage"
    Break
}
finally {
    Write-Output "`n--------------------------------------------------" | Out-File $LogDir\vm-script.log -Append
    foreach ($element in $script:LogOut){
        Write-Output $element | Out-File $LogDir\vm-script.log -Append
    }
}


#Wait until vm creation is complete, then Configure VM and Start
try {
    $script:LogOut = @()
    do {
        Write-Progress -Activity "Creating Virtual Machine"
        Start-Sleep 3
    } Until ($(Get-SCVirtualMachine -VMMServer $SCVMMServer -Name $VMName | Where-Object { ($_.Status -notmatch "UnderCreation") } ))
    GrantRole | Out-Null
    Start-SCVirtualMachine -VM $( Get-SCVirtualMachine -VMMServer $SCVMMServer -Name $VMName ) | Out-Null
    #Waiting 10 seconds and refreshing vm details so that IP info is populated.
    Start-Sleep 10
    Read-SCVirtualMachine -VM $( Get-SCVirtualMachine -VMMServer $SCVMMServer -Name $VMName ) | Out-Null
    $script:LogOut += "$(Get-Date) - Granted access for $UserRoleName to $VMName `n$(Get-Date) - IP Address for $VMName is $( Get-SCVirtualMachine -VMMServer $SCVMMServer -Name $VMName | Select-Object -ExpandProperty "VirtualNetworkAdapters" | Select-Object -ExpandProperty IPv4Addresses )"
}
catch {
    $ErrorMessage = $_.Exception.Message
    $script:LogOut += "$(Get-Date) - Failed to configure the VM $VMName, deleting. The error message was $ErrorMessage"
    do {
        Write-Progress -Activity "Failed to configure virtual machine, waiting to delete"
        Start-Sleep 3
    } Until ($(Get-SCVirtualMachine -VMMServer $SCVMMServer -Name $VMName | Where-Object { ($_.Status -notmatch "UnderCreation") } ))
    Stop-SCVirtualMachine -VM $( Get-SCVirtualMachine -VMMServer $SCVMMServer -Name $VMName ) -ErrorAction Ignore
    DeleteVM
}
finally {
    foreach ($element in $script:LogOut){
        Write-Output $element | Out-File $LogDir\vm-script.log -Append
    }
}
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